Source:https://news.ohsu.edu/2018/05/23/you-are-what-your-mother-eats?linkId=52079064 May 24 2018For years, pregnant mothers have questioned their nutritional habits: “Will eating more cause my baby to be overweight?” Or, “I’m eating for two, so it won’t hurt to have an extra serving, right?”While many factors, such as the age of the mother, overall health and genetics ultimately play a role, the correlation between a mother’s nutrition habits and metabolism has been proved to directly impact the growth of her child. And researchers at OHSU in Portland, Oregon, believe they may be one step closer to knowing why.In a study published online in Nature Communications, the research team, led by Jae W. Lee, Ph.D., has demonstrated that two neurons key to growth and metabolism — GHRH and AgRP — are developmentally interconnected.Related StoriesTackling high sugar content in baby foodResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repairScientists discover hundreds of protein-pairs through coevolution studyLocated in the hypothalamus region of the brain, within a grouping of neurons known as the arcuate nucleus, GHRH, or growth hormone-release hormone, neurons orchestrate body growth and maturation. Meanwhile, AgRP, or Agouti-related peptide, neurons stimulate feeding and suppress energy usage.To understand how these neurons are developed, the research team cataloged various proteins expressed in the arcuate nucleus of mice and analyzed their overall function.”We found that one specific protein called DLX1 is critical for GHRH neuron development. However, it also suppresses the development of the AgRP neuron,” said Lee, a professor of pediatrics in the OHSU School of Medicine and OHSU Doernbecher Children’s Hospital. “When DLX1 was removed, the mouse’s growth was stunted, yet it appears obese.”Additionally, DLX1 was found to suppress the development of OTP-labeled cells that become AgRP neurons. This would suggest normal growth development, but limited blockage of energy use, resulting in a trim figure.”For the first time, these findings prove the intimate relationship between GHRH and AgRP neurons in developmental lineage. Further, the development of both neurons can be artificially preset in controlling postnatal growth,” Lee said.The researchers now are working to determine if DLX1 may be controlled by diet. By testing both high-fat and low-protein – or malnourished – diets in mice, Lee hopes to identify how food impacts a baby’s genetic makeup in the womb. This could scientifically support the idea that ‘you are what your mother eats.’
Source:University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Jul 28 2018When tissue is damaged, one of the body’s first inflammatory immune-system responders are macrophages, cells which are commonly thought of as “construction workers” that clear away damaged tissue debris and initiate repair. However, prolonged inflammation promotes the progression of many diseases, including obesity. Now, a common class of drugs used to treat diabetes has been found to exert a powerful check on macrophages by controlling the metabolic fuel they use to generate energy. Keeping macrophages from going overboard on the job may inhibit the onset of obesity and diabetes following tissue inflammation. These findings are detailed in a study published online this month in Genes and Development led by Mitchell Lazar, MD, PhD, director of the Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.Related StoriesIntermittent fasting may protect against type 2 diabetesAADE’s comprehensive guidance on care of children, young adults with diabetes releasedDiabetes patients experiencing empathy from PCPs have beneficial long-term clinical outcomesOvernutrition, an excess intake of calories which can lead to obesity, causes a buildup of fat that can significantly damage tissues. When this happens, macrophages infiltrate the affected tissues, sequester free fatty acids, and help repair damaged tissue–essentially acting as a protector of the body during times of metabolic stress. However, extended stress on these tissues activates inflammatory characteristics in macrophages that contribute to several systemic effects of obesity including diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease.Diabetes drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs) control gene expression by targeting a factor called PPAR gamma. “It was known that PPAR gamma is important for macrophages to enter an active state to reduce inflammation and promote wound healing,” said co-first author Victoria Nelson, PhD, postdoctoral fellow in Lazar’s lab. “But we wanted to know if this was controlled through macrophage metabolism.”Lazar’s team found that the TZDs, working through PPAR gamma, promote the metabolism of an amino acid called glutamine, a protein building block necessary for macrophage activation. The team found that macrophages lacking PPAR gamma are unable to use glutamine as an energy source and therefore are more susceptible to inflammatory stimulation.”These findings are highly relevant to treatment strategies that use TZDs for diabetes and enhance the justification for using TZDs to treat systemic inflammation that accompanies many types of disease, including obesity and diabetes,” Lazar said.
Source:https://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/press/press-releases/2018/august/ultrasound-could-improve-early-detection-of-vascular-diseases-research-shows Aug 21 2018University of Leicester animal study could help to assess disease progression and alleviate symptoms in humansUltrasound conducted before a patient develops symptoms could improve early detection of diseases in blood vessels, research led by the University of Leicester has shown.In a paper published in the journal Ultrasound, the team of researchers, led by the University of Leicester’s College of Life Sciences working with researchers from Leicester’s Hospitals, conducted longitudinal ultrasound studies of two mouse models of vascular disease – aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis (AAA) – in order to track disease progression.As part of the study, mice were anesthetized and had their physiological condition closely monitored during ultrasound imaging. Ultrasound imaging is routinely used for diagnosis and monitoring of a wide range of diseases, including AAA, and can provide fast, real-time information on the ability of arteries to expand and contract with cardiac pulsation and relaxation, often referred to as arterial distension.Related StoriesScientists develop universal FACS-based approach to heterogenous cell sorting, propelling organoid researchPassive cavitation imaging can estimate a drug’s dose and location in the brainAXT enhances cellular research product portfolio with solutions from StemBioSysA decrease in arterial distension suggests increased artery wall stiffness and can serve as an early marker for vascular changes associated with cardiovascular disease.Analysis performed by the first author on the paper, Justyna Janus from the University of Leicester, revealed changes in the ability of blood vessels in the mice to pulsate as the disease state worsened, showing how ultrasound scanning can potentially result in early detection of reduced vascular function.This knowledge will prove useful in future studies aimed at testing new treatments in order to potentially alleviate the symptoms of diseases.Dr Mike Kelly, Preclinical Imaging Manager from the University of Leicester, said: “Our research shows that both lifestyle (dietary) and genetic factors can lead to increased risk of vascular disease. Our study also suggests that the ultrasound methods we employed can detect early changes in blood vessel function that can serve as a marker for detection of disease.”To translate scientific findings into improvements in human health, the use of animals remains an essential cornerstone of biomedical research. The College of Life Sciences has created a modern facility, the PRF, to support such necessary research. The unit houses various small animal species, and over 98% of the animals are rodents or fish. The focus is on compassion and care for the animals, while enabling high quality research outcomes. The use of trained animal care and technical staff, along with a stringent local ethical review processes, and oversight from local and government bodies, ensure that animals are used only when essential and that their care and welfare is paramount.
Source:https://www.charite.de/en/service/press_reports/artikel/detail/wirkung_der_tiefen_hirnstimulation_bei_parkinson/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Aug 28 2018Researchers from Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin have studied motor and cognitive effects of deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Their results show that the adverse cognitive effects of deep brain stimulation are linked to a different neural pathway than that responsible for the treatment’s desired motor effects. This finding will help optimize treatments for patients with Parkinson’s disease. Results from this research have been published in Brain.Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment alternative for Parkinson’s disease patients with an inadequate response to drug treatments. DBS targets the subthalamic nucleus, which forms part of the diencephalon, a division of the forebrain. The subthalamic nucleus integrates information from different neurons and is primarily responsible for motor processes, but also plays an important role in cognitive processes, such as decision-making and response modulation.Related StoriesResearch team to create new technology for tackling concussionStudy provides new insight into longitudinal decline in brain network integrity associated with agingDon’t Miss the Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Delivery (B3DD) Summit this AugustResearchers from Charité’s Department of Neurology on Campus Charité Mitte have studied the effect of DBS on both cognitive and motor pathways. By combining behavioral experiments with brain mapping and computational modeling, the researchers were able to show that effects on motor function – such as improvements in motor control – are mediated by different neural pathways to those responsible for unwanted cognitive effects, such as premature actions in situations involving a decision-making process.These findings enhance our understanding of the neuronal networks affected by Parkinson’s disease, deliver insights into the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease, and enable us to draw conclusions regarding the mechanism of action of DBS. “Only an improved understanding of the treatment’s mechanism of action will allow us to make deep brain stimulation more effective, thus enabling us to improve the quality of life of patients with Parkinson’s disease through a reduction in the side effects of treatment,” explains the study’s first author, Dr. Wolf-Julian Neumann, a researcher at the Department of Neurology.As a next step, the researchers from the Movement Disorders Working Group are hoping to use measurements of neural activity to differentiate between disease-specific patterns of neural activity and patterns found in healthy individuals. “This will allow us to adapt brain stimulation treatments according to the needs of the individual patient and in real time. “It is an important step on the way to developing an intelligent, personalized and demand-adapted treatment,” says Working Group Leader Prof. Dr. Andrea A. Kühn of the Department of Neurology.
A former assistant principal has been arrested and charged with the murder of teacher and mother of two, 41-year-old Kameela Russell. On June 3, her body was found floating in the Miami Gardens Canal. Her death was reportedly caused by blunt head trauma.SEE ALSO: 11-Year-Old Commits Suicide After Incessant Bullying Over His WeightThe Miami Herald reports, 39-year-old Ernest Joseph Roberts was booked on “a first-degree murder charge as authorities revealed they had recovered Kameela Russell’s car, her keys and the note, hidden by Roberts in a school file cabinet five days after the killing.” Black and Missing , Kameela Russell Tests showed the blood in the Roberts’ house matched Russell’s DNA. The Miami Herald also reports, “Cameras from a neighbor’s house showed Russell pulling up to his house that night, shortly after she left her aunt’s home, the warrant said. She walked into the home — but was never seen leaving.” It’s not clear why Russell went to Roberts’ home.We hope Kameela Russell gets justice.SEE ALSO:Outrageous! Figurines Of White Cherub Crushing Head Of Black Angel Removed From Dollar StoreDetroit High School For Underserved Youth Has 100 Percent College Acceptance RateMeet Jogger Joe, The Man Who Took Racist Cue From BBQ Becky In Tossing Homeless Man’s Clothes #SayHerName: Black Women And Girls Killed By Police More By NewsOne Staff Meghan McCain Whines That She Can’t Attack llhan Omar Because Trump Is Too Racist A$AP Rocky Being In A Swedish Prison Will Not Stop Her From Going To The Country That Showed Her ‘So Much Love’ The outlet reports the warrant claims Roberts told a school janitor “to go to a specific file cabinet inside of conference room 908.” There were car keys and a handwritten note that read, “Do you know anyone that can chop up a car? If so or make it ‘disappear’ take these keys. Its behind the speedway racetrack on 441 by County line. Friends are gone and need it to disappear. If not leave it + I’ll work it out later. THROW THIS NOTE AWAY!”Then, he called the janitor at Lentin and “directed [him] to go to a specific file cabinet inside of conference room 908,” according to the warrant. Inside was a set of car keys and the handwritten note. The alarmed employee called Miami Gardens police officers.The janitor immediately told detectives and said Roberts asked for advice on how to clean blood from a floor, alleging that he killed an intruder with a baseball bat.The note reportedly lead to DNA blood evidence, surveillance footage and phone records, according to an arrest warrant. As of now, a motive is not clear and Roberts is maintaining his innocence. State Attorney Katherine Fernandez Rundle said, “There’s more work for us to do. We all want to know what led to this.”The two did work together at Northwest Miami-Dade high school, had known each other since childhood and he was the godfather of her children. Russell was at test proctor. In February, Roberts was transferred to Linda Lentin K-8 Center in North Miami. Gov. Cuomo Slams Mayor Bill De Blasio For The Eric Garner Case But He Also Failed The Family
Karnataka crisis: What was SC’s Kihoto Hollohan order of 1992, what is the role of Speaker? Related News Advertising BJP state president B S Yeddyurappa has been demanding that CM Kumaraswamy resign immediately or face a trust vote at the earliest.The Congress-JDS coalition are trying to bring back a few rebels to restore it’s majority numbers, even as 15 rebel MLAs have approached the Supreme Court with a plea to direct the Speaker to accept their resignations.The apex court is scheduled to take up the pleas on Tuesday.With the acceptance of the resignations of 16 MLAs of the ruling coalition, the strength of the Congress-JDS alliance will fall to 101 as compared to BJP’s 105 plus two Independents. Advertising On Friday, Karnataka Chief Minister H D Kumaraswamy announced a move to seek a trust vote. (File)Amid the ongoing turmoil in the state, Karnataka Legislative Assembly Speaker K R Ramesh Kumar Monday scheduled a trust vote for the ruling Congress-JDS coalition government for 11 am on Thursday. He announced the decision of the trust vote after a meeting of the Business Advisory Council of the assembly. Karnataka trust vote today: Speaker’s call on resignations, says SC, but gives rebel MLAs a shield Karnataka Trust Vote today: Supreme Court verdict not in our way, says Congress, will issue whip Written by Johnson T A | Bengaluru | Updated: July 15, 2019 6:49:39 pm He also adjourned the house till Thursday after the BJP objected to the conduct of regular proceedings without the government proving it’s majority.The Congress, JDS and BJP MLAs will move to resorts around Bangalore to protect their flock ahead of the floor test. While the trust vote will be taken up on Thursday, the voting will take place following discussions on the vote members of all parties.Karnataka crisis | Follow LIVE updatesOn Friday, Karnataka Chief Minister H D Kumaraswamy announced a move to seek a trust vote after 16 MLAs of the coalition put in their papers, reducing the government to a minority. 11 Comment(s)
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Sep 27 2018Pacific Islanders, who trace their roots to the native peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, and other Pacific Islands, make up the third-fastest-growing racial group in the United States.But they may be the most underresearched. From what little is known about Pacific Islander behavioral health, alcohol appears to be a common substance of abuse among members of this group, especially among young adults, who are thought to be at highest risk for alcohol misuse, addiction, and alcohol-related health problems.Andrew Subica, an assistant professor in the Department of Social Medicine, Population, & Public Health at the UC Riverside School of Medicine, has received a two-year, $451,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, to study Pacific Islander alcohol prevention. The project, “Developing a Prevention Model of Alcohol Use Disorder among Pacific Islander Young Adults,” is the first grant funded by the NIH’s National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, or NIAAA, to specifically focus on Pacific Islander populations.”Alcohol use disorders appear to be a critical problem facing U.S. Pacific Islander communities, especially among young adults 18 to 30 years-old who our communities have reported are most affected by alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related harms such as fights, legal problems, drunk driving, and fatalities,” Subica said. “Unfortunately, while international research suggests Pacific Islanders have significantly higher levels of alcohol use disorders and risky drinking, which greatly increases the risk of alcohol-related harms and death, there has been almost no research done to understand the problem of alcohol use disorders among Pacific Islanders.”Subica explained that rates of alcohol use disorders may be two-to-four times higher among Pacific Islanders than those reported for the U.S. general population, suggesting this underserved population faces a major unaddressed problem.Subica came to study alcohol-use disorders among Pacific Islanders while doing his pilot projects on mental health problems — depression, anxiety, suicide — in this population. During these studies, the community informed him of its concerns surrounding alcohol use disorders in the community and the harm it causes, leading him to apply for an alcohol prevention grant from the NIAAA.To do the research, Subica will first conduct focus groups with lay Pacific Islander young adults to better understand the scope and nature of alcohol-use disorders in this Pacific Islander group, and the risk and protective factors that can lead to, or more importantly, prevent alcohol-use disorders among them.Related StoriesComplement system shown to remove dead cells in retinitis pigmentosa, contradicting previous researchTrump administration cracks down on fetal tissue researchSchwann cells capable of generating protective myelin over nerves finds research”With this data, I plan to develop new materials to conduct full-day workshops with Pacific Islander young adults. During these workshops, the young adults will help me culturally tailor current alcohol prevention interventions to meet their unique needs,” Subica said. “My team also will consult with Pacific Islander cultural experts and use our rich study data to develop a novel set of alcohol use disorder prevention strategies for Pacific Islander young adults.”Subica, a member of the Center for Healthy Communities at UCR, will work with investigators at the University of Utah, University of Southern California, Duke University, and University of Maryland on the project. Dr. Howard Moss of the UCR School of Medicine will serve as a consultant.Through the project, Subica hopes to gain a thorough understanding of why Pacific Islander young adults use alcohol in the first place, and what factors then lead them to misuse alcohol and develop alcohol-use disorders.These factors may include: lower incomes, intense family pressure to provide economically for the family, powerful cultural and social obligations that may create stress, discrimination, family and peer pressure to binge drink, and untreated mental illnesses. To prevent alcohol use disorders, Subica will examine factors that protect Pacific Islander young adults from using alcohol at all or using alcohol responsibly without transitioning to alcohol-use disorders.”At the end of this grant, we would like to have gained a set of culturally tailored prevention strategies chosen by Pacific Islanders that is likely to be effective in preventing Pacific Islander young adult alcohol use disorders,” he said. “This should help us gain an understanding of the nature of alcohol use disorders in Pacific Islander young adults and inform the interventions we create.”Subica plans to use an innovative community approach to gathering data that lets Pacific Islanders play a significant role in shaping the interventions his team develops. He is hopeful the interventions will be more effective than existing interventions.”Having Pacific Islanders weigh in and voice their preferences at every level of the intervention development process is useful in that it helps ensure the resulting intervention will be appropriate and accepted by the community — necessary factors for an intervention to be effective with underserved racial populations,” Subica said. Source:https://news.ucr.edu/articles/2018/09/26/nih-grant-supports-new-exploratory-research-aimed-studying-pacific-islander
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Dec 19 2018Critical Path Institute (C-Path) announced today that its Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Consortium has received a positive response to its Letter of Intent (LOI) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detailing the FDA’s decision to accept the consortium’s Biomarker Initiative project into the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Biomarker Qualification Program (BQP). In its LOI, the T1D Consortium provided information to support its proposed qualification of islet autoantibodies (AAs) as susceptibility/risk biomarkers that could identify individuals who are likely to develop a clinical diagnosis of T1D.The FDA indicated in its LOI decision letter that it supports the consortium’s plan to pursue biomarker qualification aimed at providing clinical validation of the islet AAs. The FDA stated, “Based on our review of the LOI, we agree there is an unmet need and agree that development of the islet AAs as a susceptibility/risk biomarker of T1D would enable proper patient selection for clinical investigations of earlier interventions for T1D.”An estimated 1.25 million Americans are living with T1D, and by the year 2050 the number of youth diagnosed with T1D in the U.S. is projected to more than triple. Islet AAs provide a means to better identify individuals at risk of progressing to a clinical diagnosis of T1D, providing a valuable opportunity to identify patients for early intervention and prevention of the progression of the disease.”The encouraging statements that FDA incorporated in the LOI decision letter add weight to the recognition of this significant unmet medical need as well as the critical importance of identifying factors for those at risk of developing T1D,” said C-Path President and CEO Martha Brumfield, Ph.D. “This early support can serve to encourage those with data in this space to participate with C-Path to positively impact the lives of individuals affected by the disease, and it also represents a meaningful advance in the prevention of T1D.”The islet AAs represent a panel of biomarkers: including antibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD-65), insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2) and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8). This model-based qualification effort, with both the FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) will be based on a disease progression model that will quantitatively describe the relationship between the presentation of two of the four islet AAs, other disease relevant features and the likelihood of developing clinical T1D over time in order to reliably identify patients for clinical trials evaluating novel therapies focused on the prevention of T1D.Related StoriesStudy: Antidepressants reduce mortality by 35% in patients with diabetesSome people treated for type 1 diabetes may have monogenic diabetes, study findsDiet and physical exercise do not reduce risk of gestational diabetesC-Path’s T1D Consortium is working to qualify islet AAs by employing the resources of its members, engaging with regulatory agencies at each step of the process, and with funding from Janssen Research & Development, LLC; JDRF International; The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust; Novo Nordisk and Sanofi. In September 2018, Provention Bio joined the T1D Consortium as its newest member, demonstrating the community’s increasing confidence in, and support of, this effort.As part of the 21st Century Cures Act, public-private partnerships consisting of government entities, including the FDA, and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, healthcare providers, and patient organizations are encouraged to work together to foster innovation in drug development and regulatory review through advancing drug development tools that give patients more timely access to diagnostic and therapeutic technologies.”The efforts of the T1D Consortium support our collective goal to translate the work of the T1D community into an accepted drug development tool to support clinical trials of new medicines for T1D patients,” said Inish O’Doherty, Ph.D., executive director of the T1D Consortium.The consortium is currently working on the next regulatory milestone: the development of a Qualification Plan for submission to the FDA and Letter of Intent/ Briefing Package for submission to the EMA. Source:https://c-path.org/critical-path-institute-encouraged-by-fda-to-move-forward-on-type-1-diabetes-biomarker-initiative/
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Feb 14 2019In an age of increased integration between physicians and hospitals, regulators should continue to scrutinize proposed hospital mergers and take steps to maintain competition, according to a new paper by experts at Rice University’s Baker Institute for Public Policy.”Weighing the Effects of Vertical Integration Versus Market Concentration on Hospital Quality” was co-authored by Marah Short, associate director of the institute’s Center for Health and Biosciences, and Vivian Ho, the James A. Baker III Institute Chair in Health Economics and director of the center. It will be published in Medical Care Research and Review.The study comes as health care provider organizations are becoming more complex, with hospitals acquiring physician practices and physician organizations getting larger. At the same time, hospitals are merging with each other to improve bargaining power with insurers, the authors said.Short and Ho analyzed information from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Hospital Compare database for 2008 to 2015. Among the 29 data points studied, the researchers analyzed hospital readmission rates, process of care measurements that gauge how well a hospital provides care to its patients, and patient satisfaction scores. Using that information, they tested whether patient outcomes are influenced by greater hospital market concentration or vertical integration between hospitals and physicians.Before they launched their study, the researchers hypothesized that decreased fragmentation, meaning better coordination among a patient’s primary care physician, specialists and admitting and attending hospital physicians, could improve patient care. Instead, they found that vertical integration has a limited effect.”The government requires that hospitals report on a wide variety of quality measures, such as practice of preventive care for surgical patients, whether their doctor or nurse communicated well, or whether the patient would recommend the hospital to others,” Ho said. “Physician-hospital integration did not improve the quality of care for the overwhelming majority of these measures. If patient welfare doesn’t improve after integration, there may be other reasons why physicians and hospitals are forming closer relationships — perhaps to raise profits.”Related StoriesStudy: Two-thirds of pneumonia patients receive more antibiotics than they probably needFeeling safe and good sleep at night matter most to sick kids in hospitalStudy looks at impact of hospital readmissions penalties on targeted surgical conditionsOn the other hand, increased market concentration, which lowers market competition, is strongly associated with reduced quality measured in terms of patient satisfaction, the authors said. With fewer competitors, it seems there is less incentive to keep patients happy. Given the nature of some satisfaction measures, such as explaining medications and communicating well with patients, overall clinical quality could suffer if patients do not properly understand care recommendations during their hospital stay or post-discharge, the authors said.”Although better patient experience may not always correlate with higher clinical quality, measuring quality based on patient perception is increasingly important as more consumers use online physician ratings and reviews of patient experience to select providers,” Short said. “Therefore, we need further research on the ability of patient satisfaction to reflect clinical quality, and if it does not, we need to develop and provide to patients better measures in terms that patients can understand and use.””Our overall recommendation is one shared with previous researchers: Regulators should continue to focus scrutiny on proposed hospital mergers, take steps to maintain competition and reduce counterproductive barriers to entry,” the authors wrote in a summary of their paper.Source: http://news.rice.edu/2019/02/13/physician-hospital-integration-does-not-improve-quality-of-care-says-rice-study
Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Mar 4 2019Women who give birth in non-hospital settings are three times more likely to encounter complications and perinatal mortality compared with hospital births, according to a new study presented by researchers from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and its affiliated Soroka University Medical Center.The study, presented in Las Vegas at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine’s 39th Annual Pregnancy Meeting in February, compared the births of 3,580 women who delivered babies in non-hospital settings in Israel to some 240,000 mothers who gave birth at Soroka between 1991 and 2014.Related StoriesChildren’s Colorado granted IAC’s Cardiovascular Catheterization accreditationRaw meat can act as reservoir for bacteria associated with hospital infectionsStudy finds slime and biofilm hidden in hospital sinks, faucetsAccording to Prof. Eyal Sheiner, M.D., chair of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at Soroka and vice dean for student affairs at BGU’s Faculty of Health Sciences (FOHS), “Approximately 15 out of every 1,000 babies born in non-hospital settings are at risk of death, compared to only five out of every1,000 babies born in hospitals.” Dr. Tamar Weinstock of BGU’s FOHS and Dr. Gil Gutvirtz of Soroka also participated in the research.When accounting for variables including the mother’s existing health, age, health habits such as smoking, and ethnic background, the occurrence of a still-born infant was significant, with a risk 2.6 times higher for infant mortality compared with patients who delivered in hospitals.”This study matches the findings of larger studies conducted in the United States and confirmed our hypothesis that childbirth in non-hospital settings is far more dangerous than in hospitals,” says Prof. Sheiner. “There is no question that a hospital provides the most secure environment to give birth, both for mothers and their babies. Even with the advances in modern medicine, childbirth is still traumatic for both the mother and child and it is critical to be prepared for any scenario.”Once-upon-a-time, the difference between home and hospital for giving birth was less important because of our ancestors’ limited understanding of medicine, but today there is a quantum difference,” he adds. “Tracking both the mother’s and baby’s progress, and vital signs in real time as well as immediate access to emergency treatment and operating rooms gives the medical team a far better chance to effectively navigate a difficult birth situation.” Source:http://www.aabgu.org/
Source:Kessler Foundation Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)May 31 2019Trevor Dyson-Hudson, MD, director of the Center for Spinal Cord Injury Research at Kessler Foundation, was awarded a $549,000 grant by the New Jersey Commission on Spinal Cord Research. Co-investigators are Gerard Malanga, MD, of the New Jersey Regenerative Institute and Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, and Nathan Hogaboom, PhD, Derfner Foundation postdoctoral fellow at Kessler Foundation. They will conduct a randomized, controlled, parallel group trial of the effectiveness of a new minimally invasive intervention for disabling shoulder pain in wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injury and overuse injuries – autologous micro-fragmented adipose tissue injection.In April 2019, the Commission announced $3.4 million in grants to successful applicants from qualified research organizations in New Jersey. This grant is one of three individual research grants awarded to the Foundation, totaling $1.74 million.For the study, 28 participants will be randomly assigned to receive an ultrasound-guided injection into the shoulder joint that contains either: 1) autologous, micro-fragmented adipose tissue; or 2) corticosteroid (triamcinolone acetonide). All participants will then undergo a standardized home exercise program, and periodic follow-up for 6 months after the injection, including physical examination and imaging studies.Adipose tissue is a readily accessed source of mechanical, bioactive and bioavailable elements. The adipose used for the injection is obtained using the Lipogems® system. A person’s own fat is harvested and processed by the Lipogems system to yield autologous, micro-fragmented adipose tissue that is then injected into the shoulder joint under ultrasound guidance. These procedures are performed by Dr. Malanga, an expert in orthopedic and sports-related injuries.The new intervention may expand treatment options for wheelchair users with intractable shoulder pain and limited range of motion. Related StoriesOlympus Europe and Cytosurge join hands to accelerate drug development, single cell researchSleep quality and fatigue among women with premature ovarian insufficiencyTransobturator sling surgery shows promise for stress urinary incontinenceThe new study is based on positive findings from a Kessler pilot study funded by the Derfner Foundation, which was the first application of this minimally invasive intervention in individuals with spinal cord injury. “The majority of the participants in our pilot study have reported significantly less pain and greater range of motion following a single injection,” Dr. Dyson-Hudson reported, “and this relief from pain and improved function was maintained even at the one-year follow-up visit.”Corticosteroid injections offer relief from pain; however, relief from pain often only lasts a few months and repeated injections may cause damage to joint tissues. “With fat obtained using Lipogems, the injected fat tissue cushions damaged joint tissues and fills structural defects,” said Dr. Malanga, “and it delivers numerous cell types and growth factors that may foster tendon repair and regeneration. This new funding is an important step in our exploration of potential applications for regenerative approaches to disabling conditions, such as the rotator cuff injuries that are so prevalent among wheelchair users with spinal cord injury,” he said, in summary.”The Commission clearly recognizes the importance of regenerative medicine to advances in rehabilitative care,” said Jay Lieberman, trustee of the Derfner Foundation. “This grant will accelerate the progress being made by the Kessler team toward finding solutions that reduce pain and disability among individuals with spinal cord injury.” If conservative treatments such as medications and physical therapy fail, then surgery is often the only remaining option. Surgery, however, involves many months of recovery, which can have a significant impact on quality of life in persons who rely on their shoulders for everyday activities and independence, and their risk is especially high for poor outcomes.”Dr. Trevor Dyson-Hudson, MD, Director, Center for Spinal Cord Injury Research, Kessler Foundation
EU researchers have developed and analysed scenarios of what future rail communication networks might look like. Their methodology will now be freely available to rail and telecom operators to make their own evaluations. Credit: Shutterstock This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Project puts rail communication networks on right track (2018, April 30) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-rail-networks-track.html Digital rail network mapping achieves efficiencies Explore further Provided by CORDIS The two-year MISTRAL (Communication Systems for Next-generation Railways) project has made important contributions to the SHIFT2RAIL Joint Undertaking, a collaboration between the Commission and industry to accelerate research and development. The project’s findings can now be taken up by industry partners within the JU, enabling them to achieve a better understanding of future network scenarios and their implications for both rail operators and passengers. “One of the advantages of being a small research-focused project is that we can ask difficult questions,” says MISTRAL project coordinator Dr. Maurizio Spirito from the Istituto Superiore Mario Boella (ISMB) in Italy. “What we don’t have are confidential industry costs and figures. By using our methodology though, rail operators can input their exact equipment costs, expected revenues, rail capacity and passenger numbers to achieve an accurate picture of what transitioning to a new communication network will mean.”Preparing for transitionTrain to wayside communication describes a crucial element of rail traffic management, involving contact between the moving train and fixed infrastructure such as signals and stations. Such communication is vital for ensuring safety and operational efficiency. The communication network used for this purpose at the moment – called GSM-R – is relatively old and tends to be owned and managed by the rail operators themselves. “This is where we are today,” says Spirito. “We might talk about 4G or even 5G networks for our cell phones, but the rail sector is still using this old technology. Transitioning to a new communication model is necessary because GSM-R maintenance support and spare parts will run out by 2030.”This is a tricky proposition. While the European Commission and others would like to open rail communication networks up to the market, many rail operators that have invested in their network are concerned about safety and security. There is some reluctance on the side of industry to transition towards new technologies that have not been proven or tested in critical environments. Future rail networks “This is the challenge that we are addressing,” says Spirito. “Within the framework of the Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking, we were asked to evaluate future scenarios where GSM-R is replaced with new technology. We have looked at what this technology would be; what services would be provided; and what the service model would be.” The project began by looking at communication services, for both rail operators and passengers. At the moment, GSM-R only supports rail operations; commercial mobile networks are sometimes available on trains for passengers, but coverage is patchy. “We thought about whether there might be no distinction in the future between rail and passenger services,” says Spirito. “For passengers, these services might include ticketing systems, route planning and entertainment. For railways, the network would have to deliver safety-critical services, but also perhaps real-time monitoring of the train and the track.” Next, the project looked at the type of technology needed to deliver next-generation services. Spirito and his team found that 4G (the current mobile network) as currently defined would not support mission-critical services but noted that there might be opportunities to evolve the current system to support such services. The project team also examined the possibility of conceiving networks not as assets owned and run by rail operators, but rather as services provided by telecom operators. “In one scenario, network mobile operators would own the communication infrastructure; the technology would still be 4G mission-critical; and services would be provided to rail operators through agreement,” explains Spirito. The project, due for completion in October 2018, will now assess the sustainability of various service models.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Roskomnadzor said it had requested that Apple both block push notifications for Telegram users in Russia, which would mean users would not receive alerts for new messages and thus render it less useful, as well as no longer make it available for download in the country.”In order to avoid possible action by Roskomnadzor for violations of the functioning of the above-mentioned Apple Inc. service, we ask you to inform us as soon as possible about your company’s further actions to resolve the problematic issue,” said the regulator.Roskomnadzor’s director Alexander Zharov later told the Russian news agency Interfax that Apple had one month to reply and declined to speculate about what actions it could possibly take against the US firm if it refused to comply.Last month a Moscow court banned popular app following a long-running battle between authorities and Telegram, which has a reputation for securely encrypted communications, as Moscow pushes to increase surveillance of internet activities. The app was created by maverick Russian programmer Pavel Durov, who has long said he will reject any attempt by the country’s security services to gain backdoor access to the app.The free app that lets people exchange messages, stickers, photos and videos in groups of up to 5,000 people has attracted more than 200 million users since its launch by Durov and his brother Nikolai in 2013.Following the court ruling Roskomnadzor has moved to block the functioning of Telegram, but has acknowledged it has only succeeded in disrupting its operations by 15 to 30 percent.It has also ended up disrupting other services, with Zharov last week accusing Telegram of using other online services as “human shields” by using their servers.Zharov was also quoted by Russian news agencies as saying the ban against Telegram was justified as it had been used in the planning of all the latest terror attacks around the world. Roskomnadzor told the TASS state news agency on Monday that discussions were still underway with Google about implementing the ban. Russian authorities requested that Apple both block push notifications for Telegram users in Russia and make it unavailable for download in the country Citation: Russia asks Apple to help block Telegram (2018, May 28) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-russia-apple-block-telegram.html Russia says to probe Facebook after Telegram crackdown © 2018 AFP Explore further Russia’s communications watchdog said Monday it had requested Apple help it block the popular messaging app Telegram which has been banned in the country for refusing to give the security services access to private conversations.
© 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Citation: Following accidents, Dutch Uber lifts minimum driver age (2019, January 21) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-accidents-dutch-uber-minimum-driver.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The general manager of Uber Nederland, Thijs Emondts, said in a statement posted on the company’s website that it is lifting the minimum age from 18 to 21 years for drivers who use its app to connect with passengers.Uber also will insist that drivers have at least one year’s driving experience and will develop a mandatory traffic safety training course for all drivers under the age of 25.Rob Stomphorst, a spokesman for road safety organization Safe Traffic the Netherlands, says four people died in recent weeks in crashes involving Dutch Uber cars. He says the circumstances of the crashes remain under investigation. The organization is planning to work with Uber to develop the safety training.Stomphorst welcomed the new measures as “a step in the right direction” but said more could be done to increase safety.Uber’s Dutch arm could not immediately be reached for comment.San Francisco-based Uber has expanded rapidly around the world by offering an alternative to traditional taxis through a smartphone app that links people in need of rides with drivers of private cars. That has drawn protests from taxi drivers who say Uber drivers don’t have to comply with the same standards as regular cab drivers, giving the ride-hailing service an unfair advantage and placing the public at risk.In his statement, Emondts said ensuring the safety of Uber users and in the cities where it operates is the company’s top priority.”That is why we are very upset at the recent traffic accidents in which a number of people have died,” he said, extending sympathy to family and friends of the victims.”While we can’t establish a clear link between the accidents, we are determined to learn from them and to improve the safety of all people in the traffic,” he added. Uber glitch leaves drivers unpaid and frustrated Ride hailing firm Uber said Monday it is raising the minimum age of its drivers in the Netherlands and taking other measures to increase road safety after a series of fatal accidents involving Uber drivers. Explore further
Explore further Citation: Cutting-edge underwater mining system can give flooded mines a new lease of life (2019, February 11) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-02-cutting-edge-underwater-lease-life.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: VAMOS project website: www.vamos-project.eu/ Europe has an estimated EUR 100 billion worth of unexploited mineral resources lying at depths of 500-1,000 m. Following centuries of active mining, the continent’s more accessible mineral deposits are mostly depleted. However, there are still deep-lying resources in abandoned flooded mines and in unmined underwater deposits that can’t be exploited using conventional dry mining techniques. Credit: Andriy Solovyov, Shutterstock Provided by CORDIS Mining for heat Thanks to a novel underwater mining system developed by the EU-funded project VAMOS, currently unreachable mineral deposits will be extracted in the future. By making underwater ore extraction possible, the robotic mining system can pave the way for the reopening of abandoned and flooded opencast mines that have an open pit rather than shafts. The technology also has the potential to extend the lifespan of opencast mines with high stripping ratios where large amounts of waste rock need to be mined to obtain a given amount of ore or with hydrological and geotechnical problems. What’s more, it may even lead to the opening of new European mines with a smaller environmental footprint. To this end, project partners have just completed their second successful field test at the Magcobar flooded mine pit in Silvermines, Ireland. The first test in 2017 took place at a flooded kaolin opencast site no longer in use in Lee Moor, Devon, in the United Kingdom. The tested technology includes a remote-controlled underwater mining vehicle capable of cutting rocks to 50-mm fragments. Equipped with a laser spectroscopy system, the vehicle can grade the ore in real time, reducing the amount of waste rock mined. The vehicle is launched and recovered from the water using an anchored launch and recovery vessel (LARV). The mined material is pumped up to the LARV on the surface. It’s then sent through a floating pipe system to a dewatering facility on the shore for further processing, while the excess water is returned to the mine pit. The mining vehicle’s exact positioning, navigation and situational awareness are controlled by a hybrid remotely operated vehicle.The pros of the underwater mining system”The process is unmanned so it is much safer and because there is no dust explosives noise or vibration and you are not demolishing large areas of rock to get to a small amount of mineral it has a much smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining” says Jenny Rainbird of project coordinator BMT Group Ltd in a news item posted on the website ‘The Engineer’.This cutting-edge technology also has other advantages. For one, groundwater doesn’t need to be pumped out of the mine continuously, which means that less energy is consumed, also making the system more cost-effective. Additionally, the local groundwater level isn’t affected, which implies a reduced impact on the surrounding environment. Also, because of hydrostatic effects, less energy is needed to bring the ore to the surface.
Provided by Swinburne University of Technology An international team of researchers has brought a new generation of solar cells a step closer to commercialisation, by showing how sunlight can trigger a ‘healing process’ in the cells to improve their efficiency and stability. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: How ‘doping’ boosts next-gen solar cells towards commercialisation (2019, May 21) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-doping-boosts-next-gen-solar-cells.html The new research—led by Swinburne in collaboration with Wuhan University of Technology in China, the University of Melbourne, and the University of Adelaide—shows how ‘doping’ the cells with a performance enhancing chemical, that is triggered by sunlight, improves their stability, making them a better prospect for commercialisation.The new type of solar cells, known as perovskite solar cells, are already more efficient than current commercially available solar cell technologies, but they have some issues that are limiting their broad use.The crystals that make up the cells have defects, known as traps, which lowers their efficiency and they also suffer from instability in sunlight, a big problem for a solar cell.Scientists have overcome these issues by ‘doping’ the solar cells with potassium to enhance their performance. Scientists knew the doping worked, but until now they didn’t know how or why.This new research shows how this ‘doping’ allows sunlight to trigger a healing process, getting rid of the defects and also improving the stability of the cells. “Sunlight becomes a trigger for the positive formation of potassium bromide-like compounds, eliminating the interface traps and stabilising the mobile ions, thus resulting in improved power conversion efficiency,” says author Dr. Weijian Chen, an early career researcher at Swinburne.”This research contributes to the rationalisation of the improved performance and guides future design protocol of better solar cells.” Dr. Xiaoming Wen, senior research fellow at Swinburne, adds. More information: Fei Zheng et al. Triggering the Passivation Effect of Potassium Doping in Mixed‐Cation Mixed‐Halide Perovskite by Light Illumination, Advanced Energy Materials (2019). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201901016 Journal information: Advanced Energy Materials Artist’s illustration of sunlight triggering potassium ion doped into perovskite solar cells, eliminating defects and improving the solar cell’s efficiency and stability. Credit: Swinburne University of Technology Explore further Just like toothpaste: Fluoride radically improves the stability of perovskite solar cells