first_img Source:https://news.ohsu.edu/2018/05/23/you-are-what-your-mother-eats?linkId=52079064 May 24 2018For years, pregnant mothers have questioned their nutritional habits: “Will eating more cause my baby to be overweight?” Or, “I’m eating for two, so it won’t hurt to have an extra serving, right?”While many factors, such as the age of the mother, overall health and genetics ultimately play a role, the correlation between a mother’s nutrition habits and metabolism has been proved to directly impact the growth of her child. And researchers at OHSU in Portland, Oregon, believe they may be one step closer to knowing why.In a study published online in Nature Communications, the research team, led by Jae W. Lee, Ph.D., has demonstrated that two neurons key to growth and metabolism — GHRH and AgRP — are developmentally interconnected.Related StoriesTackling high sugar content in baby foodResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repairScientists discover hundreds of protein-pairs through coevolution studyLocated in the hypothalamus region of the brain, within a grouping of neurons known as the arcuate nucleus, GHRH, or growth hormone-release hormone, neurons orchestrate body growth and maturation. Meanwhile, AgRP, or Agouti-related peptide, neurons stimulate feeding and suppress energy usage.To understand how these neurons are developed, the research team cataloged various proteins expressed in the arcuate nucleus of mice and analyzed their overall function.”We found that one specific protein called DLX1 is critical for GHRH neuron development. However, it also suppresses the development of the AgRP neuron,” said Lee, a professor of pediatrics in the OHSU School of Medicine and OHSU Doernbecher Children’s Hospital. “When DLX1 was removed, the mouse’s growth was stunted, yet it appears obese.”Additionally, DLX1 was found to suppress the development of OTP-labeled cells that become AgRP neurons. This would suggest normal growth development, but limited blockage of energy use, resulting in a trim figure.”For the first time, these findings prove the intimate relationship between GHRH and AgRP neurons in developmental lineage. Further, the development of both neurons can be artificially preset in controlling postnatal growth,” Lee said.The researchers now are working to determine if DLX1 may be controlled by diet. By testing both high-fat and low-protein – or malnourished – diets in mice, Lee hopes to identify how food impacts a baby’s genetic makeup in the womb. This could scientifically support the idea that ‘you are what your mother eats.’last_img read more

first_img Source:University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Jul 28 2018When tissue is damaged, one of the body’s first inflammatory immune-system responders are macrophages, cells which are commonly thought of as “construction workers” that clear away damaged tissue debris and initiate repair. However, prolonged inflammation promotes the progression of many diseases, including obesity. Now, a common class of drugs used to treat diabetes has been found to exert a powerful check on macrophages by controlling the metabolic fuel they use to generate energy. Keeping macrophages from going overboard on the job may inhibit the onset of obesity and diabetes following tissue inflammation. These findings are detailed in a study published online this month in Genes and Development led by Mitchell Lazar, MD, PhD, director of the Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.Related StoriesIntermittent fasting may protect against type 2 diabetesAADE’s comprehensive guidance on care of children, young adults with diabetes releasedDiabetes patients experiencing empathy from PCPs have beneficial long-term clinical outcomesOvernutrition, an excess intake of calories which can lead to obesity, causes a buildup of fat that can significantly damage tissues. When this happens, macrophages infiltrate the affected tissues, sequester free fatty acids, and help repair damaged tissue–essentially acting as a protector of the body during times of metabolic stress. However, extended stress on these tissues activates inflammatory characteristics in macrophages that contribute to several systemic effects of obesity including diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease.Diabetes drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs) control gene expression by targeting a factor called PPAR gamma. “It was known that PPAR gamma is important for macrophages to enter an active state to reduce inflammation and promote wound healing,” said co-first author Victoria Nelson, PhD, postdoctoral fellow in Lazar’s lab. “But we wanted to know if this was controlled through macrophage metabolism.”Lazar’s team found that the TZDs, working through PPAR gamma, promote the metabolism of an amino acid called glutamine, a protein building block necessary for macrophage activation. The team found that macrophages lacking PPAR gamma are unable to use glutamine as an energy source and therefore are more susceptible to inflammatory stimulation.”These findings are highly relevant to treatment strategies that use TZDs for diabetes and enhance the justification for using TZDs to treat systemic inflammation that accompanies many types of disease, including obesity and diabetes,” Lazar said.last_img read more

first_img Source:https://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/press/press-releases/2018/august/ultrasound-could-improve-early-detection-of-vascular-diseases-research-shows Aug 21 2018University of Leicester animal study could help to assess disease progression and alleviate symptoms in humansUltrasound conducted before a patient develops symptoms could improve early detection of diseases in blood vessels, research led by the University of Leicester has shown.In a paper published in the journal Ultrasound, the team of researchers, led by the University of Leicester’s College of Life Sciences working with researchers from Leicester’s Hospitals, conducted longitudinal ultrasound studies of two mouse models of vascular disease – aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis (AAA) – in order to track disease progression.As part of the study, mice were anesthetized and had their physiological condition closely monitored during ultrasound imaging. Ultrasound imaging is routinely used for diagnosis and monitoring of a wide range of diseases, including AAA, and can provide fast, real-time information on the ability of arteries to expand and contract with cardiac pulsation and relaxation, often referred to as arterial distension.Related StoriesScientists develop universal FACS-based approach to heterogenous cell sorting, propelling organoid researchPassive cavitation imaging can estimate a drug’s dose and location in the brainAXT enhances cellular research product portfolio with solutions from StemBioSysA decrease in arterial distension suggests increased artery wall stiffness and can serve as an early marker for vascular changes associated with cardiovascular disease.Analysis performed by the first author on the paper, Justyna Janus from the University of Leicester, revealed changes in the ability of blood vessels in the mice to pulsate as the disease state worsened, showing how ultrasound scanning can potentially result in early detection of reduced vascular function.This knowledge will prove useful in future studies aimed at testing new treatments in order to potentially alleviate the symptoms of diseases.Dr Mike Kelly, Preclinical Imaging Manager from the University of Leicester, said: “Our research shows that both lifestyle (dietary) and genetic factors can lead to increased risk of vascular disease. Our study also suggests that the ultrasound methods we employed can detect early changes in blood vessel function that can serve as a marker for detection of disease.”To translate scientific findings into improvements in human health, the use of animals remains an essential cornerstone of biomedical research. The College of Life Sciences has created a modern facility, the PRF, to support such necessary research. The unit houses various small animal species, and over 98% of the animals are rodents or fish. The focus is on compassion and care for the animals, while enabling high quality research outcomes. The use of trained animal care and technical staff, along with a stringent local ethical review processes, and oversight from local and government bodies, ensure that animals are used only when essential and that their care and welfare is paramount.last_img read more

first_img Source:https://www.charite.de/en/service/press_reports/artikel/detail/wirkung_der_tiefen_hirnstimulation_bei_parkinson/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Aug 28 2018Researchers from Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin have studied motor and cognitive effects of deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Their results show that the adverse cognitive effects of deep brain stimulation are linked to a different neural pathway than that responsible for the treatment’s desired motor effects. This finding will help optimize treatments for patients with Parkinson’s disease. Results from this research have been published in Brain.Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment alternative for Parkinson’s disease patients with an inadequate response to drug treatments. DBS targets the subthalamic nucleus, which forms part of the diencephalon, a division of the forebrain. The subthalamic nucleus integrates information from different neurons and is primarily responsible for motor processes, but also plays an important role in cognitive processes, such as decision-making and response modulation.Related StoriesResearch team to create new technology for tackling concussionStudy provides new insight into longitudinal decline in brain network integrity associated with agingDon’t Miss the Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Delivery (B3DD) Summit this AugustResearchers from Charité’s Department of Neurology on Campus Charité Mitte have studied the effect of DBS on both cognitive and motor pathways. By combining behavioral experiments with brain mapping and computational modeling, the researchers were able to show that effects on motor function – such as improvements in motor control – are mediated by different neural pathways to those responsible for unwanted cognitive effects, such as premature actions in situations involving a decision-making process.These findings enhance our understanding of the neuronal networks affected by Parkinson’s disease, deliver insights into the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease, and enable us to draw conclusions regarding the mechanism of action of DBS. “Only an improved understanding of the treatment’s mechanism of action will allow us to make deep brain stimulation more effective, thus enabling us to improve the quality of life of patients with Parkinson’s disease through a reduction in the side effects of treatment,” explains the study’s first author, Dr. Wolf-Julian Neumann, a researcher at the Department of Neurology.As a next step, the researchers from the Movement Disorders Working Group are hoping to use measurements of neural activity to differentiate between disease-specific patterns of neural activity and patterns found in healthy individuals. “This will allow us to adapt brain stimulation treatments according to the needs of the individual patient and in real time. “It is an important step on the way to developing an intelligent, personalized and demand-adapted treatment,” says Working Group Leader Prof. Dr. Andrea A. Kühn of the Department of Neurology.last_img read more

Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Scientists and diplomats have identified scores of ecologically significant ocean areas that could benefit from international recognition. Many could eventually become new marine reserves in international waters—but the list, released late last week by a science advisory group to the U.N. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), is far from producing action.Still, the process is “a laudable start in employing a scientifically rigorous methodology to identify those special ocean areas that deserve greater protection,” says conservation scientist Richard Steiner, a consulting researcher in Anchorage, Alaska.The advisory panel, which met last week in Montreal, Canada, tackled a wide range of issues, including identifying so-called ecologically or biologically significant marine areas, including those in waters not controlled by a specific nation. An estimated 1% of world oceans are already protected by various kinds of reserves, but there are few protected areas in waters beyond the 200-nautical-mile exclusive economic zones off national coasts. The few existing international marine protection zones are either part of the Antarctic Treaty System, or are related to particular species such as marine mammals or to specific risks, like dumping. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country In contrast, roughly one-quarter of the 207 sites on the advisory panel’s list are in open ocean areas (see here, click on UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/18/L.9). In compiling it, scientists confronted a series of tricky questions during nine regional meetings. In the Arctic, for example, scientists used models to identify key “areas where coral or sponge concentrations are likely,” but they can’t be sure. Elsewhere, scientists grappled with how to protect species that have yet to be discovered. In the end, seven criteria—including vulnerability and biological productivity—guided scientists to target specific areas, like the “Shrimp and sardine route from Tabou to Assinie” off the Ivory Coast, and more general ones, like “The Marginal Ice Zone and the Seasonal Ice-Cover Over the Deep Arctic Ocean.” The Arctic ice zone was controversial; as a result, it is one of 14 areas surrounded by brackets on the list, indicating disagreement among the delegates to the advisory body.The next step is for the draft list to be debated and ratified by the 194 nations that are parties to the CBD, which helps establish global conservation policies. The nations will meet in October in Pyeongchang, South Korea. Actually establishing reserves in many of the areas, however, could take far longer, relying on national programs or other treaties. So could figuring out how to enforce any management measures, such as fishing bans. “It is a long and convoluted path,” says activist Richard Page, with Greenpeace International. Still, he says, “this week we came one more step on the way towards securing a global network of ocean sanctuaries.”Meanwhile, marine conservationists are hoping that a related effort—a new proposed agreement to protect high seas biodiversity under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea—will help further the cause.  “[T]he high seas provide a range of ecosystem services, from driving weather systems and modulating the climate to the production of a high percentage of the oxygen we breathe,” states a letter signed by hundreds of marine scientists, including conservation icon Sylvia Earle, in support of the Law of the Sea approach. “[T]he high seas are full of life that needs protection.”But Steiner is cautious, given the world’s poor track record of protecting species covered by existing treaties. “These acronym-rich bureaucratic processes,” he warns, “can be a way for governments to pretend to address a problem—in this case risks to ocean ecosystems—with the actual goal of avoiding political action to solve the problem.” read more

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country A sex discrimination lawsuit filed last week has exposed a nasty fight roiling one of the most prominent, and well-funded, labs studying the mysterious condition known as chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalopathy (CFS/ME). The lengthy list of accusations, the most gossipy of which sparked coverage by the tabloid New York Post, include diversion of federal and foundation grant money.Ian Lipkin of Columbia University, a well-known virologist who  probes links between microbial infections and neuropsychiatric disorders, is being sued, along with the university, by epidemiologist Mady Hornig, his long-term collaborator. In the lawsuit, filed on 15 May in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, Hornig alleges that Lipkin for years has discriminated against her on the basis of sex and created a hostile work environment, violating U.S. and New York civil rights laws. In particular, it alleges that Lipkin took credit for Hornig’s work; diverted or misused funds, thus delaying the publication of Hornig’s research results; undermined her relationships with external collaborators and potential donors; and improperly added himself as principal investigator to grants.In an email response to a request for comment, Lipkin denies the charges, writing, “I did not engage in any wrongdoing and will vigorously defend against the allegations.” A Columbia spokesperson said the university does not comment on matters in litigation.  Lawsuit at Columbia University roils prominent chronic fatigue syndrome research lab Email Ian Lipkin is being sued by his long-time collaborator Mady Hornig. By Meredith WadmanMay. 23, 2017 , 3:00 PMcenter_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe JOSHUA BRIGHT/The New York Times Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Hornig, who also declined to comment, works at the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health; Lipkin directs the center and is Hornig’s boss. Lipkin and Hornig have worked together for 21 years trying to tease out the impact of infection and immunity on brain disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, and more recently CFS/ME.  The lawsuit asserts that Hornig and Lipkin “had a personal relationship that ended in 2011.” It then offers a variety of claims about subsequent discriminatory conduct by Lipkin, and the lack of a forceful response by Columbia when Hornig reported those actions.“Throughout their professional relationship, Lipkin made clear that he expected [Hornig] to be his largely-silent and always subservient partner, forced to work almost exclusively on his projects and to give him undue credit for her own work,” the lawsuit states. It adds: “No male faculty member in the Center is or has been subject to the same constraints or is or has been treated in this manner.”Lengthy complaintAccording to the lawsuit, Hornig filed a complaint against Lipkin with the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in April 2016.  Lipkin’s discrimination against her escalated when he became aware of the EEOC complaint, the lawsuit alleges, and Columbia failed to take sufficient action, leading Hornig to sue Lipkin and the university.The lawsuit alleges that since 2013, Lipkin has refused to allow Hornig to post about her own work on the center’s website unless the postings include him; required her to get his permission before giving invited talks; routinely presented Hornig’s work as his own in meetings with collaborators; blocked her from meetings with potential donors; and silenced her at meetings, “sometimes kicking Plaintiff on the shins, under the table … or saying ‘shut up, Mady’ or ‘shut the f**k up, Mady’ at meetings attended by both Columbia and non-Columbia colleagues.” He also, she alleges, has repeatedly refused to support her for promotion to full professor, even while supporting a male colleague. Among the claims of misuse of funds, Hornig alleges Lipkin paid the salary of a researcher studying CFS/ME with money from the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative, which was supposed to be dedicated to an autism study. The suit also claims Columbia had to return more than $53,000 to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) because Hornig refused to sign off on improper use of autism grants.The lawsuit also cites an incident with this reporter as evidence that Lipkin took undue credit. When Lipkin was interviewed this past November about a 2-year, $766,000 project on CFS/ME funded by NIH, on which he and Hornig are co–principal investigators, Lipkin credited several external collaborators but did not mention Hornig’s contribution to the work, which aims to identify biomarkers of CFS/ME. (This reporter did not ask him directly about Hornig.) The article as initially published named only Lipkin as principal investigator. The lawsuit says that Hornig brought the matter to attention of a Columbia press officer, who, allegedly over the objections of Lipkin, contacted Science requesting that Hornig’s name be added to the online version of this article (it was).Hornig, a physician, also alleges that in 2014 and 2015 Lipkin summoned her to his office, dropped his pants and asked her to examine lesions on his buttocks; the lawsuit states that she complied for fear of retribution. For the same reason, according to the lawsuit, Hornig kept quiet about Lipkin’s overall pattern of behavior toward her.When Columbia’s human resources department was alerted to the situation in 2015, through an intermediary, the lawsuit alleges Lipkin stripped Hornig of her title as medical director of the center and “severely curtailed” her access to technicians and staff. About this time, according to the lawsuit, a colleague told Hornig that Lipkin was out to “demolish” her and that his determination to sully her reputation had made him “manic.”The lawsuit also suggests Hornig and Lipkin disagreed on what some of the lab’s data supported. At one point in 2016, according to the lawsuit, “Lipkin kept insisting on capturing a particular message from work [on an autism/prenatal acetaminophen study] which did not appear to be supported by the data.” Deborah Waroff, a retired Wall Street energy analyst and CFS/ME activist who was diagnosed with the poorly understood illness in 1989, bemoans the conflict between two of the disease’s leading scientists. The lawsuit claims that for a period the friction led to delays on five CFS/ME papers. “On balance this looks bad for CFS/ME,” Waroff says. “It is already disrupting research partnerships, and if the litigation proceeds, much more time and energy will have to shift from science to legal wrangling.”last_img read more

first_img By Adrian ChoJul. 10, 2018 , 6:40 PM However, in the quantum realm of the very small, an engine can feed off a different source of energy—the energy needed to measure the position of a tiny particle—and use it with nearly complete efficiency, say Cyril Elouard and Andrew Jordan of the University of Rochester in New York. The two have devised a scheme that could, for example, raise a particle against the pull of gravity just by trying to measure its position over and over again.Imagine a bowling ball sitting on the floor of an elevator. No matter how many times you look at it, its position will remain certain. But shrink the bowling ball to, say, a single neutron on tiny movable platform, and quantum mechanics changes the picture dramatically. Because the neutron is so small, its position can no longer be predicted exactly. Instead, the neutron must be described by a diffuse quantum wave that gives the probability of finding it in different places. The quantum wave is a bit like a cloud hovering above the platform, dense near the platform where the neutron is likely to be and thin higher up. It’s not until the measurement occurs that the neutron’s position becomes known.Exploiting the either-or nature of quantum measurements, Elouard and Jordan envision measuring whether the neutron is hovering within a set distance above the platform or if it is farther up. If the neutron is inside the close zone, they leave the platform alone. If the neutron is outside that close zone, they move up the platform by the same set distance, essentially catching the neutron before gravity pulls it back down. Repeating the process gradually lifts the neutron against gravity, the researchers report in a study published in Physical Review Letters. Curiously, the platform itself never exerts a force to raise the neutron. Instead, the energy to lift the neutron comes from the measurement itself.There’s a catch, however. The measurement also changes the neutron’s quantum wave. And measuring whether the neutron is or isn’t close to the platform lops off half of the original wave. That hacksaw modification requires a lot of energy. Moreover, to get ready for the next engine cycle, this jagged wave must “relax” back to the original smooth shape, which means it must lose most of the energy it absorbed to its surroundings. Those two effects spoil the engine’s efficiency.To avoid such losses, Elouard and Jordan employ a final key ingredient: less informative measurements. They imagine changing the measurement so that the definition of “out” remains the same—the neutron lies beyond the fixed distance from the platform. But the definition of “in” becomes vaguer: It means only that the particle is within some much greater distance from the surface. If the neutron sits ambiguously between the two bounds, a quantum measurement will randomly yield either “out” or “in.”Weirdly, the less-certain measurement provides a big bonus. Tune things just right, and when the measurement says “in,” it leaves the neutron’s quantum wave nearly unchanged. When it says “out,” the measurement leaves the neutron in a wave almost identical to the original wave, but shifted upward. Crucially, those two overlapping waves so closely resemble the original one that, no matter what the result, very little energy is lost in relaxing and the neutron is ready to start the next cycle. “That’s the cleverest part,” Herrera Martí says.The engine can run with up to 99.8% efficiency, Elouard and Jordan calculate. It might be possible to build such an engine, Jordan says. “You wouldn’t run a locomotive with it,” he says, “but you could run an atom or a molecule.” What such a machine would be good for remains to be seen, however.Of course, there are trade-offs. Employing the less certain measurements requires many more cycles to lift the neutron. So the quantum measurement engine, while efficient, does its job slowly. Ultimately, the engine cannot evade the second law of thermodynamics either, Herrera Martí notes. Although the researchers don’t specify their measurement device, it must be a macroscopic machine that will have to waste energy, he says. Still, the measurement engine put a new tool in the quantum mechanic’s toolbox. Quantum measurements could power a tiny, hyperefficient engine Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country You can’t measure an atom without disturbing it, at least according to quantum mechanics. This effect may seem like a nuisance, but it could power a tiny engine that could run with nearly 100% efficiency—far greater than a car engine, a pair of physicists reports. For the moment, the “measurement engine” is purely hypothetical, but physicists say it might be possible to actually make one.”It’s a very nice idea,” says David Herrera Martí, a physicist at ProbaYes, an AI company in Montbonnot-Saint-Martin, France, that invests in quantum computing. “You could imagine having a swarm of little molecular machines that are driven very efficiently with a laser.”An engine is a machine that repeats a cycle of movements to convert energy into useful work—such as pushing your car down the road. Most engines take in heat energy from a “hot bath”—in your car’s engine, the hot gases produced by the exploding fuel. To keep chugging, an engine must repeatedly return to its original configuration and in the process, it must lose some heat to a “cold bath”—for your car, the environment. Required by the second law of thermodynamics, that unavoidable waste of energy severely limits the efficiency of a heat engine to below a level set by the temperatures of the baths. A typical car converts around 25% of the energy in gasoline into motion. Michael Blann/Getty Images center_img It takes energy to push a ball up a hill. A quantum engine might be able to do similar work by making repeated measurements. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Emaillast_img read more

first_imgA former assistant principal has been arrested and charged with the murder of teacher and mother of two, 41-year-old Kameela Russell. On June 3, her body was found floating in the Miami Gardens Canal. Her death was reportedly caused by blunt head trauma.SEE ALSO: 11-Year-Old Commits Suicide After Incessant Bullying Over His WeightThe Miami Herald reports, 39-year-old Ernest Joseph Roberts was booked on “a first-degree murder charge as authorities revealed they had recovered Kameela Russell’s car, her keys and the note, hidden by Roberts in a school file cabinet five days after the killing.” Black and Missing , Kameela Russell Tests showed the blood in the Roberts’ house matched Russell’s DNA. The Miami Herald also reports, “Cameras from a neighbor’s house showed Russell pulling up to his house that night, shortly after she left her aunt’s home, the warrant said. She walked into the home — but was never seen leaving.” It’s not clear why Russell went to Roberts’ home.We hope Kameela Russell gets justice.SEE ALSO:Outrageous! Figurines Of White Cherub Crushing Head Of Black Angel Removed From Dollar StoreDetroit High School For Underserved Youth Has 100 Percent College Acceptance RateMeet Jogger Joe, The Man Who Took Racist Cue From BBQ Becky In Tossing Homeless Man’s Clothes #SayHerName: Black Women And Girls Killed By Police Baytown police shoot pregnant woman More By NewsOne Staffcenter_img Meghan McCain Whines That She Can’t Attack llhan Omar Because Trump Is Too Racist A$AP Rocky Being In A Swedish Prison Will Not Stop Her From Going To The Country That Showed Her ‘So Much Love’ The outlet reports the warrant claims Roberts told a school janitor “to go to a specific file cabinet inside of conference room 908.” There were car keys and a handwritten note that read, “Do you know anyone that can chop up a car? If so or make it ‘disappear’ take these keys. Its behind the speedway racetrack on 441 by County line. Friends are gone and need it to disappear. If not leave it + I’ll work it out later. THROW THIS NOTE AWAY!”Then, he called the janitor at Lentin and “directed [him] to go to a specific file cabinet inside of conference room 908,” according to the warrant. Inside was a set of car keys and the handwritten note. The alarmed employee called Miami Gardens police officers.The janitor immediately told detectives and said Roberts asked for advice on how to clean blood from a floor, alleging that he killed an intruder with a baseball bat.The note reportedly lead to DNA blood evidence, surveillance footage and phone records, according to an arrest warrant. As of now, a motive is not clear and Roberts is maintaining his innocence. State Attorney Katherine Fernandez Rundle said, “There’s more work for us to do. We all want to know what led to this.”The two did work together at Northwest Miami-Dade high school, had known each other since childhood and he was the godfather of her children. Russell was at test proctor. In February, Roberts was transferred to Linda Lentin K-8 Center in North Miami. Gov. Cuomo Slams Mayor Bill De Blasio For The Eric Garner Case But He Also Failed The Familylast_img read more

first_img Karnataka crisis: What was SC’s Kihoto Hollohan order of 1992, what is the role of Speaker? Related News Advertising BJP state president B S Yeddyurappa has been demanding that CM Kumaraswamy resign immediately or face a trust vote at the earliest.The Congress-JDS coalition are trying to bring back a few rebels to restore it’s majority numbers, even as 15 rebel MLAs have approached the Supreme Court with a plea to direct the Speaker to accept their resignations.The apex court is scheduled to take up the pleas on Tuesday.With the acceptance of the resignations of 16 MLAs of the ruling coalition, the strength of the Congress-JDS alliance will fall to 101 as compared to BJP’s 105 plus two Independents. Advertising karnataka crisis, karnataka legislative assembly, kr ramesh kumar, karnataka speaker ramesh kumar, karnataka assembly speaker ramesh kumar, congress, jds, bjp, hd kumaraswamy, karnataka chief minister, india news, Indian Express On Friday, Karnataka Chief Minister H D Kumaraswamy announced a move to seek a trust vote. (File)Amid the ongoing turmoil in the state, Karnataka Legislative Assembly Speaker K R Ramesh Kumar Monday scheduled a trust vote for the ruling Congress-JDS coalition government for 11 am on Thursday. He announced the decision of the trust vote after a meeting of the Business Advisory Council of the assembly. Karnataka trust vote today: Speaker’s call on resignations, says SC, but gives rebel MLAs a shield Karnataka Trust Vote today: Supreme Court verdict not in our way, says Congress, will issue whip Written by Johnson T A | Bengaluru | Updated: July 15, 2019 6:49:39 pm He also adjourned the house till Thursday after the BJP objected to the conduct of regular proceedings without the government proving it’s majority.The Congress, JDS and BJP MLAs will move to resorts around Bangalore to protect their flock ahead of the floor test. While the trust vote will be taken up on Thursday, the voting will take place following discussions on the vote members of all parties.Karnataka crisis | Follow LIVE updatesOn Friday, Karnataka Chief Minister H D Kumaraswamy announced a move to seek a trust vote after 16 MLAs of the coalition put in their papers, reducing the government to a minority. 11 Comment(s)last_img read more

first_img By Robert F. ServiceDec. 12, 2018 , 4:10 PM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) J. ROGERS/NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Rogers and his collaborators wondered whether they could extend the treatment by harnessing the soft, flexible, dissolvable electronic materials they developed a few years ago. They used a mix of metals, semiconductors, and polymers to fashion a simple coil with two electrodes. The coil was designed to act as an antenna, picking up radiofrequency pulses transmitted wirelessly from outside the body, and converting them into mild electrical pulses. Rogers and his team implanted the devices in 25 rats in which they had cut the sciatic nerve to one of the hind legs, and stimulated the nerve ends for 1 hour a day for up to 6 days. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Tiny implantable wireless devices could help people repair nerves and lose weight Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img This implantable electronic device can speed nerve healing and dissolves when its work is done. The stimulation sped nerve healing by about 50% compared with animals that received no stimulation or just one or a few days of it, they reported in the 8 October issue of Nature Medicine. And there was no need to reopen the wounds to remove the gadgets. The materials broke down and were excreted. “After 21 days the device is completely gone, and there appeared to be no adverse effect” from degradation, Rogers says.”There is no doubt there is a potential clinical application here,” Homer-Vanniasinkam says. However, she notes that before dissolvable electronics make their way into people, researchers will need to confirm that all the materials from the devices degrade safely.Xudong Wang, a bioelectronics expert at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, is developing miniature, wireless devices that take advantage of a technology pioneered by others to convert the body’s motion into electrical current. In one study reported on 29 November in ACS Nano, a fingertip-size generator that delivered a stream of tiny electrical pulses to wounds on rats’ skin sped healing. And at the meeting, Wang described similar generators that mimic commercially available implanted electrodes meant to help patients with obesity lose weight.These devices stimulate a branch of the vagus nerve, which runs from the colon and stomach to the brain stem, helping relay signals of fullness after eating. Available devices are pacemaker-size and contain batteries that often need replacement, requiring repeated surgeries. Wang and his colleagues wanted to see whether their much smaller device, which requires no batteries, could do the same job.They implanted their device on the outer wall of a rat’s stomach, so the organ’s motions during eating would power the generator. At the meeting, Wang reported that animals with the generator ate at normal times, but less than control animals. The rats lost 38% of their weight over 18 days, at which point their weight stabilized.Jacob Robinson, an applied physicist at Rice University in Houston, Texas, shrank his implantable stimulator even further, to the size of a grain of rice. It is powered not by movement, but by magnetic field pulses delivered from outside the body, and is intended to replace the large, battery-powered brain stimulators used to control tremors in some patients with Parkinson’s disease. In rats with a version of the disease, Robinson implanted his minuscule device in the subthalamic nucleus, the same brain region targeted by larger devices. The animals’ tremors disappeared, and their movements became normal, he said at the meeting.”It’s very encouraging,” Rogers says. Robinson and others are aiming their stimulators at well-established clinical areas with an urgent need for better devices, he notes. “Having immediate use is going to be very powerful,” Rogers says, because it could help speed the approval of such devices by regulators—and smooth their way into patients. Email J. ROGERS/NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY BOSTON—Implanted electronics can steady hearts, calm tremors, and heal wounds—but at a cost. These machines are often large, obtrusive contraptions with batteries and wires, which require surgery to implant and sometimes need replacement. That’s changing. At a meeting of the Materials Research Society here last month, biomedical engineers unveiled bioelectronics that can do more in less space, require no batteries, and can even dissolve when no longer needed.”Huge leaps in technology [are] being made in this field,” says Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam, a biomedical engineer at University College London. By making bioelectronics easier to live with, these advances could expand their use. “If you can tap into this, you can bring a new approach to medicine beyond pharmaceuticals,” says Bernhard Wolfrum, a neuroelectronics expert at the Technical University of Munich in Germany. “There are a lot of people moving in this direction.”One is John Rogers, a materials scientist at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, who is trying to improve on an existing device that surgeons use to stimulate healing of damaged peripheral nerves in trauma patients. During surgery, doctors suture severed nerves back together and then provide gentle electrical stimulation by placing electrodes on either side of the repair. But because surgeons close wounds as soon as possible to prevent infection, they typically provide this stimulation for an hour or less.last_img read more

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Sep 27 2018Pacific Islanders, who trace their roots to the native peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, and other Pacific Islands, make up the third-fastest-growing racial group in the United States.But they may be the most underresearched. From what little is known about Pacific Islander behavioral health, alcohol appears to be a common substance of abuse among members of this group, especially among young adults, who are thought to be at highest risk for alcohol misuse, addiction, and alcohol-related health problems.Andrew Subica, an assistant professor in the Department of Social Medicine, Population, & Public Health at the UC Riverside School of Medicine, has received a two-year, $451,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, to study Pacific Islander alcohol prevention. The project, “Developing a Prevention Model of Alcohol Use Disorder among Pacific Islander Young Adults,” is the first grant funded by the NIH’s National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, or NIAAA, to specifically focus on Pacific Islander populations.”Alcohol use disorders appear to be a critical problem facing U.S. Pacific Islander communities, especially among young adults 18 to 30 years-old who our communities have reported are most affected by alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related harms such as fights, legal problems, drunk driving, and fatalities,” Subica said. “Unfortunately, while international research suggests Pacific Islanders have significantly higher levels of alcohol use disorders and risky drinking, which greatly increases the risk of alcohol-related harms and death, there has been almost no research done to understand the problem of alcohol use disorders among Pacific Islanders.”Subica explained that rates of alcohol use disorders may be two-to-four times higher among Pacific Islanders than those reported for the U.S. general population, suggesting this underserved population faces a major unaddressed problem.Subica came to study alcohol-use disorders among Pacific Islanders while doing his pilot projects on mental health problems — depression, anxiety, suicide — in this population. During these studies, the community informed him of its concerns surrounding alcohol use disorders in the community and the harm it causes, leading him to apply for an alcohol prevention grant from the NIAAA.To do the research, Subica will first conduct focus groups with lay Pacific Islander young adults to better understand the scope and nature of alcohol-use disorders in this Pacific Islander group, and the risk and protective factors that can lead to, or more importantly, prevent alcohol-use disorders among them.Related StoriesComplement system shown to remove dead cells in retinitis pigmentosa, contradicting previous researchTrump administration cracks down on fetal tissue researchSchwann cells capable of generating protective myelin over nerves finds research”With this data, I plan to develop new materials to conduct full-day workshops with Pacific Islander young adults. During these workshops, the young adults will help me culturally tailor current alcohol prevention interventions to meet their unique needs,” Subica said. “My team also will consult with Pacific Islander cultural experts and use our rich study data to develop a novel set of alcohol use disorder prevention strategies for Pacific Islander young adults.”Subica, a member of the Center for Healthy Communities at UCR, will work with investigators at the University of Utah, University of Southern California, Duke University, and University of Maryland on the project. Dr. Howard Moss of the UCR School of Medicine will serve as a consultant.Through the project, Subica hopes to gain a thorough understanding of why Pacific Islander young adults use alcohol in the first place, and what factors then lead them to misuse alcohol and develop alcohol-use disorders.These factors may include: lower incomes, intense family pressure to provide economically for the family, powerful cultural and social obligations that may create stress, discrimination, family and peer pressure to binge drink, and untreated mental illnesses. To prevent alcohol use disorders, Subica will examine factors that protect Pacific Islander young adults from using alcohol at all or using alcohol responsibly without transitioning to alcohol-use disorders.”At the end of this grant, we would like to have gained a set of culturally tailored prevention strategies chosen by Pacific Islanders that is likely to be effective in preventing Pacific Islander young adult alcohol use disorders,” he said. “This should help us gain an understanding of the nature of alcohol use disorders in Pacific Islander young adults and inform the interventions we create.”Subica plans to use an innovative community approach to gathering data that lets Pacific Islanders play a significant role in shaping the interventions his team develops. He is hopeful the interventions will be more effective than existing interventions.”Having Pacific Islanders weigh in and voice their preferences at every level of the intervention development process is useful in that it helps ensure the resulting intervention will be appropriate and accepted by the community — necessary factors for an intervention to be effective with underserved racial populations,” Subica said. Source:https://news.ucr.edu/articles/2018/09/26/nih-grant-supports-new-exploratory-research-aimed-studying-pacific-islanderlast_img read more

Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Dec 19 2018Critical Path Institute (C-Path) announced today that its Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Consortium has received a positive response to its Letter of Intent (LOI) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detailing the FDA’s decision to accept the consortium’s Biomarker Initiative project into the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Biomarker Qualification Program (BQP). In its LOI, the T1D Consortium provided information to support its proposed qualification of islet autoantibodies (AAs) as susceptibility/risk biomarkers that could identify individuals who are likely to develop a clinical diagnosis of T1D.The FDA indicated in its LOI decision letter that it supports the consortium’s plan to pursue biomarker qualification aimed at providing clinical validation of the islet AAs. The FDA stated, “Based on our review of the LOI, we agree there is an unmet need and agree that development of the islet AAs as a susceptibility/risk biomarker of T1D would enable proper patient selection for clinical investigations of earlier interventions for T1D.”An estimated 1.25 million Americans are living with T1D, and by the year 2050 the number of youth diagnosed with T1D in the U.S. is projected to more than triple. Islet AAs provide a means to better identify individuals at risk of progressing to a clinical diagnosis of T1D, providing a valuable opportunity to identify patients for early intervention and prevention of the progression of the disease.”The encouraging statements that FDA incorporated in the LOI decision letter add weight to the recognition of this significant unmet medical need as well as the critical importance of identifying factors for those at risk of developing T1D,” said C-Path President and CEO Martha Brumfield, Ph.D. “This early support can serve to encourage those with data in this space to participate with C-Path to positively impact the lives of individuals affected by the disease, and it also represents a meaningful advance in the prevention of T1D.”The islet AAs represent a panel of biomarkers: including antibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD-65), insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2) and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8). This model-based qualification effort, with both the FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) will be based on a disease progression model that will quantitatively describe the relationship between the presentation of two of the four islet AAs, other disease relevant features and the likelihood of developing clinical T1D over time in order to reliably identify patients for clinical trials evaluating novel therapies focused on the prevention of T1D.Related StoriesStudy: Antidepressants reduce mortality by 35% in patients with diabetesSome people treated for type 1 diabetes may have monogenic diabetes, study findsDiet and physical exercise do not reduce risk of gestational diabetesC-Path’s T1D Consortium is working to qualify islet AAs by employing the resources of its members, engaging with regulatory agencies at each step of the process, and with funding from Janssen Research & Development, LLC; JDRF International; The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust; Novo Nordisk and Sanofi. In September 2018, Provention Bio joined the T1D Consortium as its newest member, demonstrating the community’s increasing confidence in, and support of, this effort.As part of the 21st Century Cures Act, public-private partnerships consisting of government entities, including the FDA, and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, healthcare providers, and patient organizations are encouraged to work together to foster innovation in drug development and regulatory review through advancing drug development tools that give patients more timely access to diagnostic and therapeutic technologies.”The efforts of the T1D Consortium support our collective goal to translate the work of the T1D community into an accepted drug development tool to support clinical trials of new medicines for T1D patients,” said Inish O’Doherty, Ph.D., executive director of the T1D Consortium.The consortium is currently working on the next regulatory milestone: the development of a Qualification Plan for submission to the FDA and Letter of Intent/ Briefing Package for submission to the EMA. Source:https://c-path.org/critical-path-institute-encouraged-by-fda-to-move-forward-on-type-1-diabetes-biomarker-initiative/ read more

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Feb 14 2019In an age of increased integration between physicians and hospitals, regulators should continue to scrutinize proposed hospital mergers and take steps to maintain competition, according to a new paper by experts at Rice University’s Baker Institute for Public Policy.”Weighing the Effects of Vertical Integration Versus Market Concentration on Hospital Quality” was co-authored by Marah Short, associate director of the institute’s Center for Health and Biosciences, and Vivian Ho, the James A. Baker III Institute Chair in Health Economics and director of the center. It will be published in Medical Care Research and Review.The study comes as health care provider organizations are becoming more complex, with hospitals acquiring physician practices and physician organizations getting larger. At the same time, hospitals are merging with each other to improve bargaining power with insurers, the authors said.Short and Ho analyzed information from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Hospital Compare database for 2008 to 2015. Among the 29 data points studied, the researchers analyzed hospital readmission rates, process of care measurements that gauge how well a hospital provides care to its patients, and patient satisfaction scores. Using that information, they tested whether patient outcomes are influenced by greater hospital market concentration or vertical integration between hospitals and physicians.Before they launched their study, the researchers hypothesized that decreased fragmentation, meaning better coordination among a patient’s primary care physician, specialists and admitting and attending hospital physicians, could improve patient care. Instead, they found that vertical integration has a limited effect.”The government requires that hospitals report on a wide variety of quality measures, such as practice of preventive care for surgical patients, whether their doctor or nurse communicated well, or whether the patient would recommend the hospital to others,” Ho said. “Physician-hospital integration did not improve the quality of care for the overwhelming majority of these measures. If patient welfare doesn’t improve after integration, there may be other reasons why physicians and hospitals are forming closer relationships — perhaps to raise profits.”Related StoriesStudy: Two-thirds of pneumonia patients receive more antibiotics than they probably needFeeling safe and good sleep at night matter most to sick kids in hospitalStudy looks at impact of hospital readmissions penalties on targeted surgical conditionsOn the other hand, increased market concentration, which lowers market competition, is strongly associated with reduced quality measured in terms of patient satisfaction, the authors said. With fewer competitors, it seems there is less incentive to keep patients happy. Given the nature of some satisfaction measures, such as explaining medications and communicating well with patients, overall clinical quality could suffer if patients do not properly understand care recommendations during their hospital stay or post-discharge, the authors said.”Although better patient experience may not always correlate with higher clinical quality, measuring quality based on patient perception is increasingly important as more consumers use online physician ratings and reviews of patient experience to select providers,” Short said. “Therefore, we need further research on the ability of patient satisfaction to reflect clinical quality, and if it does not, we need to develop and provide to patients better measures in terms that patients can understand and use.””Our overall recommendation is one shared with previous researchers: Regulators should continue to focus scrutiny on proposed hospital mergers, take steps to maintain competition and reduce counterproductive barriers to entry,” the authors wrote in a summary of their paper.Source: http://news.rice.edu/2019/02/13/physician-hospital-integration-does-not-improve-quality-of-care-says-rice-studylast_img read more

first_imgReviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Mar 4 2019Women who give birth in non-hospital settings are three times more likely to encounter complications and perinatal mortality compared with hospital births, according to a new study presented by researchers from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and its affiliated Soroka University Medical Center.The study, presented in Las Vegas at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine’s 39th Annual Pregnancy Meeting in February, compared the births of 3,580 women who delivered babies in non-hospital settings in Israel to some 240,000 mothers who gave birth at Soroka between 1991 and 2014.Related StoriesChildren’s Colorado granted IAC’s Cardiovascular Catheterization accreditationRaw meat can act as reservoir for bacteria associated with hospital infectionsStudy finds slime and biofilm hidden in hospital sinks, faucetsAccording to Prof. Eyal Sheiner, M.D., chair of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at Soroka and vice dean for student affairs at BGU’s Faculty of Health Sciences (FOHS), “Approximately 15 out of every 1,000 babies born in non-hospital settings are at risk of death, compared to only five out of every1,000 babies born in hospitals.” Dr. Tamar Weinstock of BGU’s FOHS and Dr. Gil Gutvirtz of Soroka also participated in the research.When accounting for variables including the mother’s existing health, age, health habits such as smoking, and ethnic background, the occurrence of a still-born infant was significant, with a risk 2.6 times higher for infant mortality compared with patients who delivered in hospitals.”This study matches the findings of larger studies conducted in the United States and confirmed our hypothesis that childbirth in non-hospital settings is far more dangerous than in hospitals,” says Prof. Sheiner. “There is no question that a hospital provides the most secure environment to give birth, both for mothers and their babies. Even with the advances in modern medicine, childbirth is still traumatic for both the mother and child and it is critical to be prepared for any scenario.”Once-upon-a-time, the difference between home and hospital for giving birth was less important because of our ancestors’ limited understanding of medicine, but today there is a quantum difference,” he adds. “Tracking both the mother’s and baby’s progress, and vital signs in real time as well as immediate access to emergency treatment and operating rooms gives the medical team a far better chance to effectively navigate a difficult birth situation.”​ Source:http://www.aabgu.org/last_img read more

first_img Source:Kessler Foundation Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)May 31 2019Trevor Dyson-Hudson, MD, director of the Center for Spinal Cord Injury Research at Kessler Foundation, was awarded a $549,000 grant by the New Jersey Commission on Spinal Cord Research. Co-investigators are Gerard Malanga, MD, of the New Jersey Regenerative Institute and Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, and Nathan Hogaboom, PhD, Derfner Foundation postdoctoral fellow at Kessler Foundation. They will conduct a randomized, controlled, parallel group trial of the effectiveness of a new minimally invasive intervention for disabling shoulder pain in wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injury and overuse injuries – autologous micro-fragmented adipose tissue injection.In April 2019, the Commission announced $3.4 million in grants to successful applicants from qualified research organizations in New Jersey. This grant is one of three individual research grants awarded to the Foundation, totaling $1.74 million.For the study, 28 participants will be randomly assigned to receive an ultrasound-guided injection into the shoulder joint that contains either: 1) autologous, micro-fragmented adipose tissue; or 2) corticosteroid (triamcinolone acetonide). All participants will then undergo a standardized home exercise program, and periodic follow-up for 6 months after the injection, including physical examination and imaging studies.Adipose tissue is a readily accessed source of mechanical, bioactive and bioavailable elements. The adipose used for the injection is obtained using the Lipogems® system. A person’s own fat is harvested and processed by the Lipogems system to yield autologous, micro-fragmented adipose tissue that is then injected into the shoulder joint under ultrasound guidance. These procedures are performed by Dr. Malanga, an expert in orthopedic and sports-related injuries.The new intervention may expand treatment options for wheelchair users with intractable shoulder pain and limited range of motion. Related StoriesOlympus Europe and Cytosurge join hands to accelerate drug development, single cell researchSleep quality and fatigue among women with premature ovarian insufficiencyTransobturator sling surgery shows promise for stress urinary incontinenceThe new study is based on positive findings from a Kessler pilot study funded by the Derfner Foundation, which was the first application of this minimally invasive intervention in individuals with spinal cord injury. “The majority of the participants in our pilot study have reported significantly less pain and greater range of motion following a single injection,” Dr. Dyson-Hudson reported, “and this relief from pain and improved function was maintained even at the one-year follow-up visit.”Corticosteroid injections offer relief from pain; however, relief from pain often only lasts a few months and repeated injections may cause damage to joint tissues. “With fat obtained using Lipogems, the injected fat tissue cushions damaged joint tissues and fills structural defects,” said Dr. Malanga, “and it delivers numerous cell types and growth factors that may foster tendon repair and regeneration. This new funding is an important step in our exploration of potential applications for regenerative approaches to disabling conditions, such as the rotator cuff injuries that are so prevalent among wheelchair users with spinal cord injury,” he said, in summary.”The Commission clearly recognizes the importance of regenerative medicine to advances in rehabilitative care,” said Jay Lieberman, trustee of the Derfner Foundation. “This grant will accelerate the progress being made by the Kessler team toward finding solutions that reduce pain and disability among individuals with spinal cord injury.”center_img If conservative treatments such as medications and physical therapy fail, then surgery is often the only remaining option. Surgery, however, involves many months of recovery, which can have a significant impact on quality of life in persons who rely on their shoulders for everyday activities and independence, and their risk is especially high for poor outcomes.”Dr. Trevor Dyson-Hudson, MD, Director, Center for Spinal Cord Injury Research, Kessler Foundationlast_img read more

EU researchers have developed and analysed scenarios of what future rail communication networks might look like. Their methodology will now be freely available to rail and telecom operators to make their own evaluations. Credit: Shutterstock This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Project puts rail communication networks on right track (2018, April 30) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-rail-networks-track.html Digital rail network mapping achieves efficiencies Explore further Provided by CORDIS The two-year MISTRAL (Communication Systems for Next-generation Railways) project has made important contributions to the SHIFT2RAIL Joint Undertaking, a collaboration between the Commission and industry to accelerate research and development. The project’s findings can now be taken up by industry partners within the JU, enabling them to achieve a better understanding of future network scenarios and their implications for both rail operators and passengers. “One of the advantages of being a small research-focused project is that we can ask difficult questions,” says MISTRAL project coordinator Dr. Maurizio Spirito from the Istituto Superiore Mario Boella (ISMB) in Italy. “What we don’t have are confidential industry costs and figures. By using our methodology though, rail operators can input their exact equipment costs, expected revenues, rail capacity and passenger numbers to achieve an accurate picture of what transitioning to a new communication network will mean.”Preparing for transitionTrain to wayside communication describes a crucial element of rail traffic management, involving contact between the moving train and fixed infrastructure such as signals and stations. Such communication is vital for ensuring safety and operational efficiency. The communication network used for this purpose at the moment – called GSM-R – is relatively old and tends to be owned and managed by the rail operators themselves. “This is where we are today,” says Spirito. “We might talk about 4G or even 5G networks for our cell phones, but the rail sector is still using this old technology. Transitioning to a new communication model is necessary because GSM-R maintenance support and spare parts will run out by 2030.”This is a tricky proposition. While the European Commission and others would like to open rail communication networks up to the market, many rail operators that have invested in their network are concerned about safety and security. There is some reluctance on the side of industry to transition towards new technologies that have not been proven or tested in critical environments. Future rail networks “This is the challenge that we are addressing,” says Spirito. “Within the framework of the Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking, we were asked to evaluate future scenarios where GSM-R is replaced with new technology. We have looked at what this technology would be; what services would be provided; and what the service model would be.” The project began by looking at communication services, for both rail operators and passengers. At the moment, GSM-R only supports rail operations; commercial mobile networks are sometimes available on trains for passengers, but coverage is patchy. “We thought about whether there might be no distinction in the future between rail and passenger services,” says Spirito. “For passengers, these services might include ticketing systems, route planning and entertainment. For railways, the network would have to deliver safety-critical services, but also perhaps real-time monitoring of the train and the track.” Next, the project looked at the type of technology needed to deliver next-generation services. Spirito and his team found that 4G (the current mobile network) as currently defined would not support mission-critical services but noted that there might be opportunities to evolve the current system to support such services. The project team also examined the possibility of conceiving networks not as assets owned and run by rail operators, but rather as services provided by telecom operators. “In one scenario, network mobile operators would own the communication infrastructure; the technology would still be 4G mission-critical; and services would be provided to rail operators through agreement,” explains Spirito. The project, due for completion in October 2018, will now assess the sustainability of various service models. read more

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Roskomnadzor said it had requested that Apple both block push notifications for Telegram users in Russia, which would mean users would not receive alerts for new messages and thus render it less useful, as well as no longer make it available for download in the country.”In order to avoid possible action by Roskomnadzor for violations of the functioning of the above-mentioned Apple Inc. service, we ask you to inform us as soon as possible about your company’s further actions to resolve the problematic issue,” said the regulator.Roskomnadzor’s director Alexander Zharov later told the Russian news agency Interfax that Apple had one month to reply and declined to speculate about what actions it could possibly take against the US firm if it refused to comply.Last month a Moscow court banned popular app following a long-running battle between authorities and Telegram, which has a reputation for securely encrypted communications, as Moscow pushes to increase surveillance of internet activities. The app was created by maverick Russian programmer Pavel Durov, who has long said he will reject any attempt by the country’s security services to gain backdoor access to the app.The free app that lets people exchange messages, stickers, photos and videos in groups of up to 5,000 people has attracted more than 200 million users since its launch by Durov and his brother Nikolai in 2013.Following the court ruling Roskomnadzor has moved to block the functioning of Telegram, but has acknowledged it has only succeeded in disrupting its operations by 15 to 30 percent.It has also ended up disrupting other services, with Zharov last week accusing Telegram of using other online services as “human shields” by using their servers.Zharov was also quoted by Russian news agencies as saying the ban against Telegram was justified as it had been used in the planning of all the latest terror attacks around the world. Roskomnadzor told the TASS state news agency on Monday that discussions were still underway with Google about implementing the ban. Russian authorities requested that Apple both block push notifications for Telegram users in Russia and make it unavailable for download in the country Citation: Russia asks Apple to help block Telegram (2018, May 28) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-russia-apple-block-telegram.html Russia says to probe Facebook after Telegram crackdowncenter_img © 2018 AFP Explore further Russia’s communications watchdog said Monday it had requested Apple help it block the popular messaging app Telegram which has been banned in the country for refusing to give the security services access to private conversations.last_img read more

first_img © 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Citation: Following accidents, Dutch Uber lifts minimum driver age (2019, January 21) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-accidents-dutch-uber-minimum-driver.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The general manager of Uber Nederland, Thijs Emondts, said in a statement posted on the company’s website that it is lifting the minimum age from 18 to 21 years for drivers who use its app to connect with passengers.Uber also will insist that drivers have at least one year’s driving experience and will develop a mandatory traffic safety training course for all drivers under the age of 25.Rob Stomphorst, a spokesman for road safety organization Safe Traffic the Netherlands, says four people died in recent weeks in crashes involving Dutch Uber cars. He says the circumstances of the crashes remain under investigation. The organization is planning to work with Uber to develop the safety training.Stomphorst welcomed the new measures as “a step in the right direction” but said more could be done to increase safety.Uber’s Dutch arm could not immediately be reached for comment.San Francisco-based Uber has expanded rapidly around the world by offering an alternative to traditional taxis through a smartphone app that links people in need of rides with drivers of private cars. That has drawn protests from taxi drivers who say Uber drivers don’t have to comply with the same standards as regular cab drivers, giving the ride-hailing service an unfair advantage and placing the public at risk.In his statement, Emondts said ensuring the safety of Uber users and in the cities where it operates is the company’s top priority.”That is why we are very upset at the recent traffic accidents in which a number of people have died,” he said, extending sympathy to family and friends of the victims.”While we can’t establish a clear link between the accidents, we are determined to learn from them and to improve the safety of all people in the traffic,” he added. Uber glitch leaves drivers unpaid and frustrated Ride hailing firm Uber said Monday it is raising the minimum age of its drivers in the Netherlands and taking other measures to increase road safety after a series of fatal accidents involving Uber drivers. Explore furtherlast_img read more

first_img Explore further Citation: Cutting-edge underwater mining system can give flooded mines a new lease of life (2019, February 11) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-02-cutting-edge-underwater-lease-life.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: VAMOS project website: www.vamos-project.eu/ Europe has an estimated EUR 100 billion worth of unexploited mineral resources lying at depths of 500-1,000 m. Following centuries of active mining, the continent’s more accessible mineral deposits are mostly depleted. However, there are still deep-lying resources in abandoned flooded mines and in unmined underwater deposits that can’t be exploited using conventional dry mining techniques. Credit: Andriy Solovyov, Shutterstock Provided by CORDIS Mining for heat Thanks to a novel underwater mining system developed by the EU-funded project VAMOS, currently unreachable mineral deposits will be extracted in the future. By making underwater ore extraction possible, the robotic mining system can pave the way for the reopening of abandoned and flooded opencast mines that have an open pit rather than shafts. The technology also has the potential to extend the lifespan of opencast mines with high stripping ratios where large amounts of waste rock need to be mined to obtain a given amount of ore or with hydrological and geotechnical problems. What’s more, it may even lead to the opening of new European mines with a smaller environmental footprint. To this end, project partners have just completed their second successful field test at the Magcobar flooded mine pit in Silvermines, Ireland. The first test in 2017 took place at a flooded kaolin opencast site no longer in use in Lee Moor, Devon, in the United Kingdom. The tested technology includes a remote-controlled underwater mining vehicle capable of cutting rocks to 50-mm fragments. Equipped with a laser spectroscopy system, the vehicle can grade the ore in real time, reducing the amount of waste rock mined. The vehicle is launched and recovered from the water using an anchored launch and recovery vessel (LARV). The mined material is pumped up to the LARV on the surface. It’s then sent through a floating pipe system to a dewatering facility on the shore for further processing, while the excess water is returned to the mine pit. The mining vehicle’s exact positioning, navigation and situational awareness are controlled by a hybrid remotely operated vehicle.The pros of the underwater mining system”The process is unmanned so it is much safer and because there is no dust explosives noise or vibration and you are not demolishing large areas of rock to get to a small amount of mineral it has a much smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining” says Jenny Rainbird of project coordinator BMT Group Ltd in a news item posted on the website ‘The Engineer’.This cutting-edge technology also has other advantages. For one, groundwater doesn’t need to be pumped out of the mine continuously, which means that less energy is consumed, also making the system more cost-effective. Additionally, the local groundwater level isn’t affected, which implies a reduced impact on the surrounding environment. Also, because of hydrostatic effects, less energy is needed to bring the ore to the surface.last_img read more

first_img Provided by Swinburne University of Technology An international team of researchers has brought a new generation of solar cells a step closer to commercialisation, by showing how sunlight can trigger a ‘healing process’ in the cells to improve their efficiency and stability. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: How ‘doping’ boosts next-gen solar cells towards commercialisation (2019, May 21) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-doping-boosts-next-gen-solar-cells.html The new research—led by Swinburne in collaboration with Wuhan University of Technology in China, the University of Melbourne, and the University of Adelaide—shows how ‘doping’ the cells with a performance enhancing chemical, that is triggered by sunlight, improves their stability, making them a better prospect for commercialisation.The new type of solar cells, known as perovskite solar cells, are already more efficient than current commercially available solar cell technologies, but they have some issues that are limiting their broad use.The crystals that make up the cells have defects, known as traps, which lowers their efficiency and they also suffer from instability in sunlight, a big problem for a solar cell.Scientists have overcome these issues by ‘doping’ the solar cells with potassium to enhance their performance. Scientists knew the doping worked, but until now they didn’t know how or why.This new research shows how this ‘doping’ allows sunlight to trigger a healing process, getting rid of the defects and also improving the stability of the cells. “Sunlight becomes a trigger for the positive formation of potassium bromide-like compounds, eliminating the interface traps and stabilising the mobile ions, thus resulting in improved power conversion efficiency,” says author Dr. Weijian Chen, an early career researcher at Swinburne.”This research contributes to the rationalisation of the improved performance and guides future design protocol of better solar cells.” Dr. Xiaoming Wen, senior research fellow at Swinburne, adds. More information: Fei Zheng et al. Triggering the Passivation Effect of Potassium Doping in Mixed‐Cation Mixed‐Halide Perovskite by Light Illumination, Advanced Energy Materials (2019). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201901016center_img Journal information: Advanced Energy Materials Artist’s illustration of sunlight triggering potassium ion doped into perovskite solar cells, eliminating defects and improving the solar cell’s efficiency and stability. Credit: Swinburne University of Technology Explore further Just like toothpaste: Fluoride radically improves the stability of perovskite solar cellslast_img read more